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1. They have the most pronounced mesial marginal ridge groove of any other maxillary tooth.
2. They have a large mesial concavity.
3. They are the most frequent non-molar tooth to have three roots.
4. They have the greatest cervico-occlusal crown height of any posterior tooth.
5. The cross section is kidney shaped due to a pronounced mesial concavity.
6. They have a longer mesial-facial cusp ridge than disto-facial cusp ridge due to the distally offset facial cusp.
7. The buccal cusps are offset to the distal, while the lingual cusps are offset to the mesial.
Pictured here: Tooth #5
1. They are the most symmetrical posterior tooth: the buccal and lingual cusps are nearly identical and equal in height.
2. They have a shot central groove with several supplemental grooves (instead of one long central groove and few supplemental grooves), creating a “wrinkly” appearance.
3. They are a single rooted tooth.
4. The root is are usually longer than those of the maxillary first premolar.
5. More variations in morphology are often observed.
Pictured here: Tooth #4